動態紋身有望警告佩戴者健康威脅

動態紋身有望警告佩戴者健康威脅
在不久的將來,紋身可能會成為醫療診斷設備以及人體藝術。
通過Getty Images的LightFieldStudios / iStock

在科幻小說中 “鑽石時代” by Neal Stephenson, body art has evolved into “constantly shifting mediatronic tattoos” – in-skin displays powered by nanotech robopigments.由尼爾史蒂文森(Neal Stephenson)設計的人體藝術已演變為“不斷變化的Mediatronic紋身” –由納米技術搶劫提供動力的皮膚內顯示器。 In the 25 years since the novel was published, nanotechnology has had time to catch up, and the sci-fi vision of dynamic tattoos is starting to become a reality.自小說出版以來的XNUMX年間,納米技術已經趕上了發展的步伐,動態紋身的科幻視覺開始成為現實。

The first examples of color-changing nanotech tattoos have been developed over the past few years, and they're not just for body art.過去幾年中已經開發出了可改變顏色的納米技術紋身的第一個例子,它們不僅用於人體藝術。 They have a biomedical purpose.它們具有生物醫學目的。 Imagine a tattoo that alerts you to a health problem signaled by a change in your biochemistry, or to radiation exposure that could be dangerous to your health.想像一下一個紋身,它會警告您注意因生化變化或可能對您的健康構成危險的輻射而發出的健康問題。

You can't walk into a doctor's office and get a dynamic tattoo yet, but they are on the way.您尚不能走進醫生辦公室並獲得動態紋身,但是它們正在路上。 Early proof-of-concept studies provide convincing evidence that tattoos can be engineered, not only to change color, but to sense and convey biomedical information, including the onset of cancer.早期的概念驗證研究提供了令人信服的證據,表明可以對紋身進行改造,不僅可以改變顏色,還可以感知和傳達生物醫學信息,包括癌症的發作。

發出生化變化信號

2017年,研究人員對從豬身上摘下的豬皮進行了紋身, 使用顏色的分子生物傳感器 指示皮膚液體中的鈉,葡萄糖或pH值。


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每週雜誌 每日靈感

在2019年,一組研究人員對該研究進行了擴展,包括 蛋白質感應和開髮用於紋身的智能手機讀數。 This year, they also showed that今年,他們還表明 熒光紋身傳感器可以檢測到電解質水平.

在2018年,一個生物學家團隊開發了一個 由工程皮膚細胞製成的紋身 that darken when they sense an imbalance of calcium caused by certain cancers.當他們感覺到某些癌症引起的鈣失衡時,其顏色就會變黑。 They demonstrated the cancer-detecting tattoo in living mice.他們在活著的老鼠身上展示了可察覺癌症的紋身。

紫外線輻射傳感器

我的實驗室 is 從不同的角度看科技紋身。 We are interested in sensing external harms, such as ultraviolet radiation.我們對感知外部傷害(例如紫外線)感興趣。 UV exposure in sunlight and tanning beds is the main risk factor for all types of skin cancer.陽光和曬黑床中的紫外線暴露是所有類型皮膚癌的主要危險因素。 Nonmelanoma skin cancers are the most common malignancies in the US, Australia and Europe.非黑色素瘤皮膚癌是美國​​,澳大利亞和歐洲最常見的惡性腫瘤。

(動態紋身有望警告佩戴者健康威脅)紫外線激活的紋身墨水在暴露於紫外線下是不可見的。 傑西·巴特菲爾德(Jesse Butterfield)/科羅拉多大學博爾德分校新興納米材料實驗室, CC BY-NC-ND

為了解決這個問題,我們開發了 一種不可見的紋身墨水,僅在紫外線下會變成藍色,在需要保護皮膚時提醒您。 The tattoo ink contains a UV-activated dye inside of a plastic nanocapsule less than a micron in diameter – or thousandth of a millimeter – about the same size as an ordinary tattoo pigment.紋身墨水在塑料納米膠囊內部包含紫外線激活的染料,直徑小於一微米(即千分之一毫米),其大小與普通紋身顏料相同。

The nanocapsule is needed to make the color-changing tattoo particles large enough.需要納米膠囊以使變色紋身顆粒足夠大。 If tattoo pigments are too small, the immune system rapidly clears them from the skin and the tattoo disappears.如果紋身顏料太小,免疫系統會迅速將其從皮膚上清除掉,並且紋身會消失。 They are implanted using tattoo machines in the same way as regular tattoos, but they last for only several months before they start to degrade from UV exposure and other natural processes and fade, requiring a “booster” tattoo.它們使用與常規紋身相同的方式使用紋身機植入,但是它們只能持續數月,才開始因暴露於紫外線和其他自然過程而降解並褪色,從而需要“助推器”紋身。

I served as the first human test subject for these tattoos.我是這些紋身的第一個人體測試對象。 I created “solar freckles” on my forearm – invisible spots that turned blue under UV exposure and reminded me when to wear sunscreen.我在前臂上創建了“太陽能雀斑”,這些不可見的斑點在紫外線照射下變成藍色,提醒我何時應該戴防曬霜。 My lab is also working on invisible UV-protective tattoos that would absorb UV light penetrating through the skin, like a long-lasting sunscreen just below the surface.我的實驗室還在研究不可見的紫外線防護紋身,這種紋身可以吸收穿透皮膚的紫外線,就像表面下方的持久防曬霜一樣。 We're also working on “thermometer” tattoos using temperature-sensitive inks.我們還正在使用對溫度敏感的墨水製作“溫度計”紋身。 Ultimately, we believe tattoo inks could be used to prevent and diagnose disease.最終,我們認為紋身墨水可用於預防和診斷疾病。


在這個TEDx演講中,作者演示了可檢測紫外線的紋身。

臨時高科技紋身

臨時轉移紋身也在經歷一場高科技革命。 穿戴式電子紋身 that can sense electrophysiological signals like heart rate and brain activity or monitor hydration and glucose levels from sweat are under development.可以感知諸如心率和大腦活動之類的電生理信號或監測汗液中的水分和葡萄糖水平的信號正在開發中。 They can even be used for它們甚至可以用於 控制移動設備,例如,在有紋身的情況下重新整理音樂播放列表,或者 發光的人體藝術 照亮皮膚。

The advantage of these wearable tattoos is that they can use battery-powered electronics.這些可穿戴紋身的優點是它們可以使用電池供電的電子產品。 The disadvantage is that they are much less permanent and comfortable than traditional tattoos.缺點是它們不如傳統紋身持久且舒適。 Likewise, electronic devices that go underneath the skin are being developed by同樣,皮膚下面的電子設備也正在被開發 科學家, 設計師生物黑客 相似,但它們需要採用侵入性的外科手術進行植入。

Tattoos injected into the skin offer the best of both worlds: minimally invasive, yet permanent and comfortable.刺入皮膚的紋身提供了兩全其美的方法:微創,持久且舒適。 New新 無針紋身方法 that fire microscopic ink droplets into the skin are now in development.現在正在開發將微小墨滴噴射到皮膚中的技術。 Once perfected they will make tattooing quicker and less painful.一旦完善,它們將使紋身更快,更輕鬆。

準備好日常使用了嗎?

The color-changing tattoos in development are also going to open the door to a new kind of dynamic body art.正在開發中的變色紋身也將為新型動態人體藝術打開大門。 Now that tattoo colors can be changed by an electromagnetic signal, you'll soon be able to “program” your tattoo's design, or switch it on and off.現在可以通過電磁信號更改紋身的顏色,您很快就可以對紋身的設計進行“編程”,或者打開和關閉紋身了。 You can proudly display your neck tattoo at the motorcycle rally and still have clear skin in the courtroom.您可以在摩托車拉力賽中驕傲地展示自己的脖子紋身,而法庭上仍然有透明的皮膚。

As researchers develop dynamic tattoos, they'll need to study the safety of the high-tech inks.隨著研究人員開發出動態紋身,他們將需要研究高科技墨水的安全性。 As it is, little is known about the safety of the more than 100 different pigments used in normal tattoo inks.實際上,對於普通紋身墨水中使用的XNUMX多種不同顏料的安全性知之甚少。 The的 美國食品和藥物管理局 has not exercised regulatory authority over tattoo pigments, citing other competing public health priorities and a lack of evidence of safety problems with the pigments.尚沒有對紋身顏料行使監管權,理由是其他競爭性公共衛生方面的優先考慮事項,以及缺乏有關顏料安全性問題的證據。 So US manufacturers can put whatever they want in tattoo inks and sell them without FDA approval.因此,美國製造商可以將任何想要的東西放入紋身墨水中,而無需FDA批准就可以出售。

到目前為止,有 沒有證據表明紋身會致癌一項研究甚至發現黑色紋身可以預防紫外線誘發的皮膚癌。 Still, many tattoo inks儘管如此,許多紋身墨水 包含或降解為已知有害的物質,包括感染,過敏和肉芽腫在內的健康並發症 在約2%的紋身中發現。 More research is needed to understand the long-term effects of nano- and microimplants in the skin in general.一般而言,需要更多的研究來了解納米和微型植入物對皮膚的長期影響。

A wave of high-tech tattoos is slowly upwelling, and it will probably keep rising for the foreseeable future.高科技紋身的浪潮正在慢慢興起,並且在可預見的未來可能還會繼續上升。 When it arrives, you can decide to surf or watch from the beach.到達時,您可以決定在海灘衝浪或觀看。 If you do climb on board, you'll be able to check your body temperature or UV exposure by simply glancing at one of your tattoos.如果您確實登上木板,只需看一眼紋身就可以檢查您的體溫或紫外線暴露。談話

關於作者

Carson J Bruns,助理教授, 科羅拉多大學博爾德分校

本文重新發表 談話 根據知識共享許可。 閱讀 原創文章.

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