哪款電動車更環保電池還是燃料電池?

哪款電動車更環保電池還是燃料電池?

社區最好不要投資使用電池而不是氫燃料電池的電動汽車。 原因? 除清潔運輸外,氫氣幾乎沒有額外的能源效益。

對於一項新的研究,研究人員在假設的未來比較了兩種類型的汽車,其中電動汽車的成本更便宜。

“We looked at how large-scale adoption of electric vehicles would affect total energy use in a community, for buildings as well as transportation,” says lead author Markus Felgenhauer, a doctoral candidate at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and former visiting scholar at the Stanford University Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP).

“我們發現投資全電動汽車是減少二氧化碳排放的更經濟的選擇,主要是因為它們的成本更低,能效更高。”

Two ‘flavors’

“這些研究需要確定全球能源系統深度脫碳的最低成本和最有效途徑,”研究合著者Sally Benson補充道,他是斯坦福大學能源資源工程教授和GCEP主任。

Electric vehicles come in two flavors: plug-in cars with rechargeable batteries, and fuel cell vehicles that convert hydrogen gas into clean electricity.

Unlike gasoline-powered cars, battery and fuel cell vehicles emit zero carbon when driven. But deploying them at scale will require a costly new infrastructure for charging batteries or delivering hydrogen fuel.

Which cuts total emissions at lowest cost?

政策制定者面臨的一個關鍵問題是,哪種運輸技術能夠以最低成本的電池或燃料電池減少總排放量? 一些研究表明,除了運輸之外,氫能技術還能為供暖和照明建築提供清潔能源嗎?

這項新研究發表在期刊上 能源,是第一個解決這兩個問題的人。

研究人員專注於加州,這是電動汽車運輸的領導者。 在全州範圍內,電池電動汽車越來越受歡迎。 但只有少數製造商開始提供燃料電池汽車。 為了鼓勵更廣泛的採用,該州已為92的50加氫站網絡撥款超過2017萬美元。

目前,這兩種能源都不是完全無排放的。 有些人通過插入電網為電池充電,電網主要由碳排放的化石燃料產生電力。

Likewise, most hydrogen fuel is derived from natural gas through an industrial process that emits carbon dioxide as a byproduct. An alternative device, called an electrolyzer, uses solar-generated electricity to split water into clean hydrogen and oxygen, but the technique is very energy intensive and expensive.

場景

在這項研究中,研究人員為洛斯阿爾托斯山鎮創建了未來情景,這個社區是聖克拉拉縣的8,000居民。

“Los Altos Hills is distinguished by an unusually high solar-generation capacity in the county with the highest share of electric vehicles in the state,” Felgenhauer says.

The scenarios focused on 10 to 20 years in the future, when battery and fuel cell vehicles are expected to be in much wider use, and when solar power and electrolyzers are cost competitive with the electric grid.

今年的一個場景2035假設電動汽車將構成該鎮車隊的38百分比。 它還假設燃料電池車輛將由本地生產的氫氣供電,該氫氣由最便宜的可用電力製成,無論是太陽能產生的還是從電網獲得的。

關於Los Altos Hills的數據被用於由研究合著者,TUM的電氣和計算機工程教授Thomas Hamacher開發的計算模型。

“We provided data on the amount of energy Los Altos Hills needs throughout the day, as well as financial data on the cost of building new energy infrastructures,” says study coauthor Matthew Pellow, a former GCEP postdoctoral scholar now with the Electric Power Research Institute. “We included the cost of making solar panels, electrolyzers, batteries, and everything else. Then we told the model, given our scenario for 2035, tell us the most economical way to meet the total energy demand of the community.”

為了將每種情景的成本與其氣候效益進行比較,研究人員還計算了每種情況下產生的二氧化碳排放量。

他們還評估了使用氫基礎設施儲存清潔能源以供按需使用的潛在好處。 在白天,電解槽可以從過剩的太陽能產生氫氣,否則會浪費。 氫氣可以儲存並轉化為可再生電力,或者用作天然氣的清潔替代品,用於加熱和照亮建築物。

結果清晰

結果是明確的。

“In terms of overall costs, we found that battery electric vehicles are better than fuel cell vehicles for reducing emissions,” Felgenhauer says. “The analysis showed that to be cost competitive, fuel cell vehicles would have to be priced much lower than battery vehicles.

“However, fuel cell vehicles are likely to be significantly more expensive than battery vehicles for the foreseeable future. Another supposed benefit of hydrogen—storing surplus solar energy—didn’t pan out in our analysis either. We found that in 2035, only a small amount of solar hydrogen storage would be used for heating and lighting buildings.”

作者寫道,雖然這項研究的重點是一個灣區城鎮,但結果與許多臥室社區有關,這些社區在加利福尼亞州有充足的陽光。 他們希望在未來的研究中分析更大的社區網絡,並在決定是否購買電池或燃料電池汽車時,研究可能影響消費者選擇的其他因素。

“我們的目標是提供客觀的,數據驅動的分析,以幫助加利福尼亞州和其他地方的政策制定者了解哪些技術途徑可能更具成本效益,以應對氣候變化,”Pellow說。

寶馬集團和斯坦福大學GCEP資助了這項工作。

資源: 斯坦福大學


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