Even after mounting evidence of Donald Trump’s exploitative and demeaning treatment of women, his standing in the polls still hovers above 40%。 從表面來看，這有點令人震驚 - 但不足為奇的是他的支持者之間的性別分裂。
A recent summary of gender differences in the polls compiled by FiveThirtyEight found that women favour Trump’s female opponent, Hillary Clinton, by 15 percentage points overall; men, on the other hand, favour Trump by five. It’s true that many Republican women are standing by their man, but that’s not enough for Trump to win women’s vote overall.
No surprise at all to gender researchers, though, is that the first time a woman threatens to break through what Clinton called the “highest, hardest 玻璃天花板” of the US presidency, her nominated opponent is the embodiment of the “male chauvinist pig” – a man, usually in a position of power, who publicly expresses the opinion that women are by nature inferior to men and best relegated to the kitchen and the bedroom.
The term male chauvinism first emerged after World War II as more women entered paid employment. This threatened the self-esteem many men derive from their dominance over women in the family, the economy, and society at large.
The use of the term chauvinist pig became more widespread as women in the US demanded not just employment, but the employment equality supported by affirmative action and Title VII of the 1964民權法案. The epithet was in vogue during the late 1960s and early 1970s, at the height of second wave feminism.
從那時起，許多美國男性已經適應了女性的經濟收益。 他們更有可能 to be married to employed women than to women who aren’t in the labour force. Men spend 做無償家務和托兒的時間是兩倍 as they did in the 1960s, and generally 報告更多平等主義態度 to survey researchers.
Yet these gender equality gains are modest and fragile. Men’s masculine identity is still linked to their economic role, and a man’s chauvinist pig can resurface if this is threatened. But not all men are equally vulnerable to this threat.
Across the divide
All workers shared in the prosperity of the postwar era – but things began to change in the late 1970s, when wage inequality among men rose sharply in ways that affect their economic advantage over women.
女性和男性的大學學位工資回報率穩步上升，但性別差距仍然最大 at the top of the wage distribution. In other words, the wage gains of high-skilled women are not likely to threaten the masculinity of high-skilled men. In contrast, the gender wage gap has almost disappeared among the least-skilled men and women.
隨著美國去工業化以及最低工資的實際價值，低技能男性的工資停滯不前 下降. Collectively-bargained, high-wage manufacturing jobs evaporated; they were replaced by precarious, low-wage service sector positions. The upshot is that a couple or family could not survive for long on a low-skilled husband’s income alone.
The men most affected by this transformation are now lining up for Trump like no other segment of the electorate. As reported by 大西洋 back in March 2016, white men without a college degree form the core of Trump’s supporters.
Without economic advantage, a man’s inner chauvinistic pig can break out to reassert dominance over women in another way. One way is to objectify women, as Trump was recorded doing with Billy Bush in 2005. Trump’s coarse comments may have scared away some of the Republican mainstream, but plenty of his supporters have dismissed them as typical masculine “locker-room talk” (a defence even shock-jock Howard Stern 拒絕).
男性沙文主義者也利用國家來主張自己對女性的統治地位。 相當多的特朗普支持者中的一個例子是推特#repealthe19th - 一聲吶喊 repeal the amendment that gave women the right to vote.
But women did not principally cause the economic woes that have left some voters so desperate as to think a chauvinist like Trump can save them. Indeed, it’s precisely men like Trump who have used their power and privilege to widen the gap between the haves and have nots.
Trump’s chauvinism will never make America greater than it is right now. Instead, his campaign has revealed just how damaging male chauvinism can be. And now, with his hyper-masculinity threatened by Clinton’s edge in the polls, Trump is attacking the very democratic process a presidential candidate should passionately defend.
Assuming that not even Donald Trump can destroy American democracy, the real challenge begins for whoever is sworn in as president on January 20 2017. Americans need more economic security for their enlightened sides to shine through again. This means more good jobs at living wages for men as well as women. Only then can the country begin to close the social chasms revealed and fuelled by Trump’s campaign – and only then can we banish chauvinism to the past, where it belongs.
Lynn Prince Cooke, Professor of Social Policy, 巴斯大學