這種晝夜節律肝臟基因如何幫助人體在深夜和午夜吃零食後保持平穩的工作

這種晝夜節律肝臟基因如何幫助人體在深夜和午夜吃零食後保持平穩的工作
晝夜節律是我們健康的重要方面。
kanyanat wongsa / Shutterstock

Every living human is controlled by an internal “clock” which drives our circadian rhythm – the natural internal process that regulates our sleep-wake cycle during a 24-hour period.每個有生命的人都受到內部“時鐘”的控制,該時鐘驅動我們的晝夜節律-調節XNUMX小時睡眠-覺醒週期的自然內部過程。 This internal clock controls most of our body processes over this period, including our sleep cycle, digestion, metabolism, appetite and immunity.這個內部時鐘控制著我們這段時間的大部分身體過程,包括睡眠週期,消化,新陳代謝,食慾和免疫力。

External light levels, eating times and physical activity all act to keep the body clock synchronised to the external environment.外部光照水平,進食時間和體育鍛煉都可以使體內時鐘與外部環境保持同步。 Every cell in our body also has its own clock, which helps keep these processes working so seamlessly.人體中的每個細胞都有自己的時鐘,這有助於使這些過程無縫地工作。 For example, clocks in individual tissues, such as the liver, work to ensure timely supply of energy to the rest of the body.例如,單個組織(例如肝臟)中的時鐘可以確保向身體的其他部位及時提供能量。

But our circadian rhythm can be disrupted by any number of factors, including going to bed later than usual, or eating late at night.但是我們的晝夜節律可能會受到許多因素的干擾,包括比平時晚睡覺或深夜進食。 While occasional disruptions are no cause for alarm, research shows that long-term circadian rhythm disruption can cause poor health.儘管偶爾的干擾不會引起警報,但研究表明,長期的晝夜節律干擾會導致健康狀況不佳。 For example, many studies have found that regular shift work increases the例如,許多研究發現,定期輪班會增加 肥胖的風險2型糖尿病。 And unfortunately,不幸的是, 晝夜節律紊亂 由於光污染,噪音和電子設備的出現,這在我們的社會中正變得越來越普遍,所有這些因素都可能加劇這些慢性健康狀況。

But why is the body able to manage one-off instances of circadian rhythm disruption – such as staying up late on the weekend, or eating a late-night meal – without any health consequences?但是,為什麼身體能夠處理一次性的晝夜節律紊亂(例如,在周末熬夜或吃深夜飯)而沒有任何健康後果呢? Our我們的 最近的工作 看看晝夜節律如何控制新陳代謝過程以匹配我們的日常食物攝取方式就可以解決問題。


 通過電子郵件獲取最新信息

每週雜誌 每日靈感

肝臟基因“時鐘”

One important component of our body clock is a protein called REVERBα.人體時鐘的重要組成部分是一種稱為REVERBα的蛋白質。 It is one of the network of proteins which keeps our body clock “ticking” in each organ of the body.它是蛋白質的網絡之一,可使我們的體內時鐘在人體的每個器官中“滴答作響”。 However, natural genetic variation of the REVERBα gene is然而,REVERBα基因的自然遺傳變異是 與肥胖有關 in humans.在人類中。 Research has also found that mice研究還發現,老鼠 缺乏基因 所有組織中的脂肪都會在器官內和器官周圍積聚,如果進食高脂飲食,可能會變得非常肥胖。

We wanted to study more closely the action of REVERBα in the liver, as the liver is critical for maintaining energy balance, and its function is highly circadian, to cope with fasting during sleep.我們想更深入地研究REVERBα在肝臟中的作用,因為肝臟對於維持能量平衡至關重要,並且其功能是高度晝夜節律的,以應對睡眠中的禁食。 To do this, we used a new type of genetically modified mouse with the為此,我們使用了一種新型的轉基因小鼠 REVERBα基因缺失 僅在肝臟中。

To our surprise, we discovered that deleting REVERBα has relatively little impact.令我們驚訝的是,我們發現刪除REVERBα的影響相對較小。 In particular, we didn't see the accumulation of fat in the liver that we were expecting, and which is seen in animals which lack REVERBα in all tissues.特別是,我們沒有看到我們期望的肝臟中脂肪的積聚,這在所有組織中都缺乏REVERBα的動物中也可以看到。 However, when we mapped liver genes that were likely to be under the control of REVERBα, we found thousands – including genes that are major regulators of energy and fat metabolism.但是,當我們繪製可能受REVERBα控制的肝臟基因的圖譜時,我們發現了成千上萬的基因,其中包括主要調節能量和脂肪代謝的基因。

So we had a paradox: a circadian clock regulator with an extensive range of targets in the liver, yet it was not essential for normal liver function.因此,我們有一個悖論:晝夜節律調節器在肝臟中具有廣泛的靶標,但對於正常的肝功能而言並不是必需的。 This raised two important issues.這就提出了兩個重要問題。 First, that under normal conditions REVERBα is ready, but not required to regulate fat metabolism.首先,在正常情況下,REVERBα已準備就緒,但不需要調節脂肪代謝。 And second, that the earlier findings linking REVERBα to obesity (and to the accumulation of fat in multiple organs) might actually arise from body-wide cues.第二,將REVERBα與肥胖症(以及脂肪在多個器官中的積累)聯繫起來的早期發現實際上可能來自於全身暗示。

Specifically, we thought that eating at unexpected times may be the cause for obesity.具體來說,我們認為在意外時間進食可能是肥胖的原因。 This is because mice lacking REVERBα throughout their body had an irregular eating pattern, especially feeding during their rest, or sleep period.這是因為整個體內缺乏REVERBα的小鼠的飲食習慣不規律,尤其是在休息或睡眠期間進食。

To test this idea, we analysed what happened when mice with REVERBα deleted in the liver were subjected to disrupted feeding schedules, rather like how shift work disrupts eating schedules.為了檢驗這個想法,我們分析了肝臟中缺失REVERBα的小鼠受到破壞的進食時間表,就像輪班工作如何破壞進食時間表一樣。 Here, we discovered that disordered feeding caused a major change in the expression of genes that control fat metabolism – but only when REVERBα was deleted from the liver.在這裡,我們發現飲食失調導致控制脂肪代謝的基因表達發生重大變化,但僅限於肝臟中REVERBα缺失的情況。 This suggests that REVERBα acts to smooth out the effects of disordered eating, as shown in our diagram below.這表明REVERBα可以消除飲食失調的影響,如下圖所示。

REVERBα如何阻止晝夜節律“中斷”

REVERBα如何阻止晝夜節律“中斷”
丹妮爾·凱(Danielle Kay)
, 作者提供

In this way, all the internal clocks embedded in our body's tissues serve to protect against occasional changes in behaviour (such as the odd late-night meal).這樣,嵌入在人體組織中的所有內部時鐘都可以防止偶爾的行為變化(例如,奇怪的深夜進餐)。 However, when we are constantly doing things that go against our natural circadian rhythm – such as always eating late, or working night shifts – this protective system is overwhelmed, leading to obesity and diabetes.但是,當我們不斷做一些與我們的自然晝夜節律背道而馳的事情時(例如,總是吃晚或上夜班),這種保護系統就會不堪重負,導致肥胖和糖尿病。

Our study therefore highlights the importance of eating meals in sync with the body clock, during the day.因此,我們的研究強調了在白天與人體時鐘同步進餐的重要性。 To keep our liver clock ticking – and to keep our whole circadian rhythm working properly – it's important to develop an eating schedule that has a clear separation between the fed period (typically during the day), and the fasted period (typically during the night).為了使我們的肝臟時鐘保持節拍,並保持整個晝夜節律正常運行,重要的是製定飲食計劃,使進食期(通常在白天)和禁食期(通常在晚上)之間有明顯的區別。 This is hard for shift workers, depending on shift schedule, so strategies to help are urgently needed.對於輪班工人來說,這很困難,具體取決於輪班時間表,因此迫切需要幫助的策略。談話

關於作者

內分泌學教授David Ray 牛津大學; David Bechtold, Professor of Physiology,生理學教授David Bechtold, 曼徹斯特大學以及內分泌學和糖尿病講師Louise Hunter, 曼徹斯特大學

本文重新發表 談話 根據知識共享許可。 閱讀 原創文章.

books_health

你也許也喜歡

可用語言

English 南非荷蘭語 阿拉伯語 簡體中文 中國傳統的) 丹麥 荷蘭人 菲律賓 芬蘭 法國 德語 希臘語 希伯來語 印度語 匈牙利 印度尼西亞 意大利 日本 韓語 馬來語 挪威 波斯語 波蘭語 葡萄牙語 羅馬尼亞 俄語 西班牙語 斯瓦希裡 瑞典 泰語 土耳其 烏克蘭 烏爾都語 越南語

關注InnerSelf

Facebook的圖標Twitter圖標YouTube圖標instagram圖標pintrest圖標rss圖標

 通過電子郵件獲取最新信息

每週雜誌 每日靈感

新態度 - 新的可能性

InnerSelf.com氣候影響新聞網 | 內力網
MightyNatural.com | WholeisticPolitics.com | InnerSelf市場
版權所有©1985 - 2021心靈有所出版物。 版權所有。