ZEPHYR /蓋蒂圖片社

在全球COVID-19大流行之間, 經濟衰退 and widespread protests over racism, it's difficult for everyone.以及對種族主義的廣泛抗議,每個人都很難。 Many people are struggling, consumed with anxiety and stress, finding ourselves unable to sleep or focus.許多人在掙扎,焦慮和壓力下進食,發現自己無法入睡或無法集中註意力。

作為一個 發展心理學家和研究員 on anxiety and fear in infants and young children, I have been particularly concerned about the impact of the pandemic on young people's mental health.關於嬰幼兒的焦慮和恐懼,我特別擔心大流行對年輕人心理健康的影響。 Many have not physically been in school since March.自三月以來,許多人從未上過學。 They're isolated from friends and relatives.他們與親戚朋友隔離。 Some fear that they or loved ones will contract the virus;有些人擔心他們或親人會感染該病毒。 they may be hurt in racial violence or violence at home – or they might lose their home in a他們可能會受到種族暴力或家庭暴力的傷害–或者他們可能會在 磷火 or flood.或洪水。 These are very real life stressors.這些都是現實生活中的壓力源。

幾十年的研究 have documented serious consequences from chronic stress in childhood.記錄了兒童期長期壓力造成的嚴重後果。 But psychologists have identified ways in which parents teach children how to cope with adversity – an idea commonly known as resilience.但是,心理學家已經確定了父母教孩子如何應對逆境的方法-這種想法通常稱為韌性。


Children cannot be protected from everything.無法保護兒童免受一切侵害。 Parents get divorced.父母離異。 Children grow up in poverty.兒童在貧窮中成長。 Friends or loved ones are injured, fall ill or die.朋友或親人受傷,生病或死亡。 Kids can experience neglect, physical or emotional abuse or bullying.孩子們會遭受忽視,身體或情感上的虐待或欺凌。 Families immigrate, end up homeless or live through natural disasters.家庭移民,無家可歸或天災人禍。

可以有 長期後果。 Hardship in childhood can physically alter兒童時期的困境會在身體上改變 大腦結構 of a developing child.發育中的孩子It can impair可能會損害 認知和社會情感發展,影響學習,記憶,決策等。

Some children develop emotional problems, act out with aggressive or disruptive behavior, form unhealthy relationships or end up in trouble with the law.一些孩子會出現情緒問題,表現出攻擊性或破壞性行為,形成不健康的關係或最終陷入法律困境。 School performance often suffers, ultimately limiting job and income opportunities.學校的表現常常受到影響,最終限制了工作和收入機會。 The risk of suicide or自殺的風險或 毒品和酒精濫用 can increase.可以增加。 Kids who are exposed to chronic stress may also develop遭受慢性壓力的孩子也可能發育 終身健康問題包括心髒病,中風,肥胖,糖尿病和癌症。

So how do some kids thrive amidst serious challenges, while others are overwhelmed by them?那麼,有些孩子如何在嚴峻的挑戰中壯成長,而另一些卻不知所措? Researchers in my field are working to identify what helps children overcome obstacles and flourish when the odds are stacked against them.我這個領域的研究人員正在努力找出什麼方法可以幫助兒童克服障礙並在遇到困難時發揚光大。

似乎歸結為支持和 彈性。 Resilience is彈性是 定義 as the ability to spring back, rebound or readily recover from adversity.作為在逆境中反彈,反彈或輕易恢復的能力。 It's a quality that allows people to be competent and accomplished despite tough circumstances.這種品質使人們即使在艱難的環境中也能勝任和成就。 Some children from一些孩子 困難的背景 do well from a young age.從小就做的很好。 Others bloom later, finding their paths once they reach adulthood.其他人後來開花,到成年後便找到了道路。

發展心理學研究的先驅安·馬斯滕(Ann Masten)將復原力稱為“普通魔術。” Resilient kids don't have some kind of superpower that helps them persevere while others flounder.有彈性的孩子沒有某種超級能力可以幫助他們在別人掙扎時堅持不懈。 It isn't a trait we're born with;這不是我們與生俱來的特徵。 it's something that can be fostered.這是可以培養的。


每週雜誌 每日靈感


一樣 執行功能技能 that create academic success seem to bestow critical coping strategies.取得學術成功的人似乎賦予了關鍵的應對策略。 With the capacity to focus, solve problems and switch between tasks, children find ways to adapt and deal with obstacles in a healthy way.通過集中註意力,解決問題和在任務之間切換的能力,孩子們找到了以健康的方式適應和應對障礙的方法。

Controlling behavior and emotions is also key.控制行為和情緒也是關鍵。 In a recent在最近 研究,儘管受到了虐待,但仍保持情緒平衡的8至17歲的年輕人患抑鬱症或其他情緒問題的可能性較小。

依戀關係” provide a lifelong sense of security and belonging.提供終身的安全感和歸屬感。 A parent's or caregiver's父母或照顧者的 持續的支持和保護 is crucial for healthy development and the most important of these relationships.對於健康發展至關重要,也是這些關係中最重要的。 Other caring adults can help: friends, teachers, neighbors, coaches, mentors or others.其他有愛心的成年人可以提供幫助:朋友,老師,鄰居,教練,導師或其他人。 有堅定的支持 提供穩定性,並幫助孩子建立自尊,自力更生和力量。

Ruth Bader Ginsburg is an icon of resilience.露絲·巴德·金斯堡(Ruth Bader Ginsburg)是韌性的象徵。 She grew up in a Brooklyn working-class neighborhood and lost her mother – her main support figure – to cancer before graduating from high school.她在布魯克林工人階級社區長大,高中畢業前失去了母親(她的主要撫養人)患癌症。 She persevered, graduated first in her class at Cornell University and ultimately became one of only four women to serve on the Supreme Court.她堅持不懈,在康奈爾大學(Cornell University)的班級里首先畢業,並最終成為在最高法院任職的僅有的四名女性之一。 Another example is John Lewis, who was the son of sharecroppers in segregated Alabama, yet become a pioneer in the civil rights movement and served 33 years in Congress.另一個例子是約翰·劉易斯(John Lewis),他是阿拉巴馬州偏遠地區農作物的兒子,但後來成為民權運動的先驅,並在國會服務了XNUMX年。


There are many ways parents can help their children build resilience.父母可以通過多種方式幫助孩子增強韌性。 Allowing children to talk – and really允許孩子說話-確實 –表現出關懷和接受,確認他們的感受並幫助他們將問題與背景聯繫起來。

有時候答案是 讓孩子有一定程度的自主權。 Trusting them to try things on their own – and even fail – can help them learn to solve problems or deal with anger, disappointment or other uncomfortable emotions.信任他們自己嘗試甚至失敗的嘗試,可以幫助他們學習解決問題或應對憤怒,失望或其他不舒服的情緒。 “平靜呼吸”技術 提供另一種幫助孩子控制情緒的工具。

重要的是要注意,許多孩子不僅面對一個孩子,而且面對 許多 hardships.艱辛。 For example, kids who live in poverty may have less present or less competent parents;例如,生活在貧困中的孩子可能沒有現在的父母或沒有能力的父母; have high daily levels of stress;每天有很高的壓力; suffer hunger, poor nutrition or live in crowded conditions, with few parks;飢餓,營養不良或生活在擁擠的環境中,公園很少; have no health care;沒有衛生保健; study in substandard schools;在不合格的學校學習; and have greater likelihood of abuse.並更有可能遭受虐待。

社區一級 interventions can help reduce risks while helping children build resilience.干預可以幫助降低風險,同時幫助兒童增強適應能力。 These initiatives can provide better living circumstances through affordable housing and improve health by reducing pollution.這些舉措可以通過負擔得起的住房提供更好的生活條件,並通過減少污染來改善健康狀況。 Strong programs can engage teachers, parents and community members build a stable support system for local children.強有力的計劃可以使教師,父母和社區成員參與進來,為當地兒童建立穩定的支持系統。

“社會和情感學習”課程在學校中越來越受歡迎。 This curriculum teaches children to understand and manage their feelings, develop empathy for others, make responsible decisions and solve problems.該課程教孩子們理解和管理自己的感覺,同情他人,做出負責任的決定和解決問題。

這些程序產生 有形的結果:對270,000名參與者的分析 表明學生 raised their grades by an average of 11%.他們的成績平均提高了XNUMX%。 Other studies revealed that fewer participants dropped out of school, used drugs or engaged in criminal activity – and school behavior improved.其他研究表明,輟學,吸毒或從事犯罪活動的參與者減少了,並且學校行為得到了改善。

Helping children build resilience is particularly critical now, as Americans face particular turbulence in daily life.現在,幫助孩子們增強適應力變得尤為重要,因為美國人在日常生活中面臨著特別的動盪。 Parents, too, need to guard their mental health in order to provide kids with crucial support: Building resilience isn't just kid stuff.父母也需要維護自己的心理健康,以便為孩子提供至關重要的支持:建立適應能力不僅是孩子的事。

以上 5百萬個孩子 in the US experience some kind of trauma each year.在美國,每年都會遭受某種創傷。 Thousands more live with chronic stress.成千上萬的人患有慢性壓力。 So amid a global pandemic, it's more important than ever to provide children with as much support and “ordinary magic” as we can.因此,在全球大流行中,為兒童提供盡可能多的支持和“普通魔術”比以往任何時候都更加重要。談話


心理學助理教授Vanessa LoBue, 羅格斯大學紐瓦克分校

本文重新發表 談話 根據知識共享許可。 閱讀 原創文章.





每週雜誌 每日靈感




為什麼熱泵 6 12
by 賴斯大學Daniel Cohan
太陽能電池板、熱泵和氫氣都是清潔能源經濟的基石。 但是是…
社會壓力和老齡化 6 17
by Eric Klopack,南加州大學
隨著人們年齡的增長,他們的免疫系統自然會開始下降。 這種免疫系統的老化,…
煮熟後更健康的食物 6 19
by 蒂賽德大學的勞拉·布朗
並非所有食物生吃都更有營養。 的確,有些蔬菜其實更...
充電器無法使用 9 19
新的 USB-C 充電器規則展示了歐盟監管機構如何為世界做出決定
by Renaud Foucart,蘭開斯特大學
您是否曾經借用朋友的充電器卻發現它與您的手機不兼容? 或者…
間歇性禁食 6 17
by 大衛克萊頓,諾丁漢特倫特大學
嬰兒健忘症 6 9
by Vanessa LoBue,羅格斯大學
儘管人們在 2 歲或 3 歲之前記不起太多,但研究表明……
與動物交流 6 12
by 瑪塔威廉姆斯
動物總是試圖通過我們。 他們不斷地向我們發送直觀的信息……
男人。 海灘上的女人和孩子
這是這一天嗎? 父親節轉機
by 威爾金森
今天是父親節。 象徵意義是什麼? 今天在你的生活中會發生一些改變生活的事情嗎……

新態度 - 新的可能性

InnerSelf.com氣候影響新聞網 | 內力網
MightyNatural.com | WholeisticPolitics.com | InnerSelf市場
版權所有©1985 - 2021心靈有所出版物。 版權所有。